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Rules Related to a Dying Person

By: Ayatollah Tabatabai


One thing that a human being forgets despite being reminded repeatedly is death. Allah (S) has said in the Holy Qur'an:

"Every soul shall taste death" (Ali Imran, 3:185 )

One should try to keep in mind the fact that his or her life may come to an end at any time, sometimes without warning. We have seen young and old die before us, and consequently it is important that we should be well prepared to leave this world at all times.

Everyone tries to ensure that their journey through life is pleasant, by working hard to provide for themselves and their family as many worldly comforts as possible. Surprisingly, very few of the same people spare a thought to acquiring the comforts of the life after death. The span of our lives in this world is a blink of the eye compared to the length of the next life and only a very thoughtless person will not work tirelessly to make provisions for that life. An example is given to illustrate this fact.

Consider why you go to school and to higher education. You go to obtain enough knowledge and skills so that you may be able to earn your livelihood. The harder you work at your studies, the better your prospects. Similarly, you are in this world to perform the actions that will determine your status in the next world, and you must work hard.

You do your homework and observe school rules so that your stay in school is comfortable, but your aim is always to pass the final exams. Similarly, you acquire knowledge and wealth to make your stay in this world comfortable, but your aim has to be to obtain Allah's pleasure and reward.

The following words have been used extensively in the notes: therefore, their definitions have been given below.
  1. Wajib: Obligatory on every Baligh person.
  2. Wajibe Kifai: Obligatory on everyone who is Baligh, but if one person does it, then the others are freed from the responsibility.
  3. Ehtiyate Wajib: An obligatory precaution.
  4. Haraam: Forbidden to all Muslims.
  5. Mustahab: Recommended to perform.
  6. Makrooh: Not recommended to perform (undesirable, disliked by Allah).

What To Do Just Before Death

The time just before death is known as Ehtezaar or Sakaraat.
  1. The following action is Wajib

    It is Wajib to lay a dying person on their back with the face and soles of feet facing Qiblah, if possible.
  1. The following actions are Mustahab

    1. The people near the dying person should make him recite and understand Kalimae Shahadatayn, Kalimae Faraj, the names of the Twelve Imams (A) and other beliefs. This should be done to the last breath. According to Hadith, he whose last words are "La ilaha Illallah" shall enter Jannat.

    2. To recite Surae Yasin, Wasaffat, Ahzab, Ayatul Kursi, 54th Ayat of Surae A'raaf, last 3 ayats of Surae Baqarah and to recite Holy Qur'an as much as possible near the head of a dying person. This will help the soul to depart peacefully.

    3. If a dying person is in difficulty, he should be kept in a place he regularly said his prayers. It is better to also recite Du'ae Adeela in these cases.
  1. The following actions are Makrooh.

    1. To leave the dying person alone.
    2. To lay hands on his body or to keep anything on his stomach.
    3. For those in the state of Haidh (Menses) or Janabat to stay near the dying person.
    4. To talk a lot or cry too much.

What To Do Just After Death:

  1. The following actions are Wajibe Kifai:

    Administering Ghusl, Kafan, Salaatul Mayyit and Burial. If nobody attends to these duties, everybody would be sinning. Committees are usually appointed to administer Ghusl and Kafan.
  1. The following action is Ehtiyate Wajib:

    Before beginning the above rituals, permission of the Wali (Guardian) of the deceased be obtained.
  1. The following actions are Mustahab:

    1. To close his lips, eyes and mouth; to keep his arms and legs straight and to cover the whole body with a sheet of cloth.
    2. To have sufficient lighting if it is dark.
    3. To inform and insist on Mu'mineen to take part in the burial.
  1. The following actions are Makrooh:

    1. To leave the dead body alone.
    2. For those in the state of Haidh (Menses) or Janabat to go near the dead body.
    3. To delay the rituals before burial.

The Procedure Of Ghusl

It is Wajibe Kifai to give the body of every dead Muslim the Ghusls or ritual baths. Only in the case of a child miscarried before four months in the womb is Ghusl not necessary.

The people doing the Ghusl must not disclose any defects that they noticed on the dead body and Allah writes off the sins of these people in such a way as if they were born on the same day.

Three Ghusls must be administered to the corpse:

The first Ghusl is with Aabe-Sidr (water mixed with the leaves of the berry tree), the second with Aabe-Kaafur (water mixed with camphor) and the third with Aabe-Khalis (pure water).
  1. The following rules are relevant to the water used:

    1. The leaves of the berry plant or camphor must not be in such a quantity as to change the colour of the water, so that the water mixtures become Aabe-Muzaf (impure water); nor so little that it cannot be distinguished whether the water has been mixed with camphor or berry leaves.

    2. If one dies in the state of Ehram, camphor must not be used for the second Ghusl. In this case, both second and third Ghusls are performed with pure water.

    3. In cases where camphor or berry leaves are not available, or if they are Ghasbi the respective Ghusls may instead be performed with pure water. In such cases, it is Ehtiyate Wajib that the corpse be given Tayammum (with appropriate Niyyat) as a substitute for the Ghusls in which the berry leaves and camphor were supposed to have been used.

    4. When there is no water available at all then for each Ghusl performed Tayammum will be administered and a forth Ghusl because of the inability to give Ghusl with water.
  1. The following rules are relevant to the persons giving Ghusl:

    A person giving Ghusl to a dead body must be:
    1. A Shia Ithna'asheri Muslim.
    2. Baligh.
    3. Of sound mind.
    4. Aware of the rules of Ghusl.
    5. The same sex as the dead person. (Some exceptions to this rule are given later.)
  1. The following actions are Mustahab:

    1. At least two persons should be engaged for giving Ghusl. One should pour water on the dead body, while the other should change its sides.

    2. The soles of the feet of the dead body should face Qiblah.

    3. Ghusl should not be given under the open sky, but in a covered place or a house.

    4. Wudhuu may be given to the dead body before the Ghusls.

    5. The person giving Ghusl should be on the right side of the body, and before each of the three Ghusls, they should wash their own arms upto the elbows.

    6. If the dead person has Ghusle Janabat due, then it may be given before the three Ghusls of Mayyit.

    7. All participants should recite Du'a and ask for the forgiveness of the dead person throughout the Ghusls.

    8. When the Ghusls are over, the dead body should be dried.
  1. The following rules are relevant to the Ghusls

    1. A person giving Ghusl must do it with the sole intention of pleasing and obeying Allah. It is Haraam to take payment for it. If a person does this work in order to obtain financial reward for his labour, such Ghusl will be Batil (void). However, one can charge for provision of means and materials for the Ghusl or Kafan.

    2. If part of the dead body is Najis, then it should be made Pak before giving Ghusl. However, it is better to clean the whole body with soap (to remove oil, dirt etc) before giving Ghusl.

    3. If the clothes on the body cannot be undone, they may be cut away with the permission of the Wali. All rings, watches, etc must be removed prior to starting Ghusl.

    4. The way of giving Ghusl to the corpse is the same as performing Ghusl for Janabat. Three Ghusls should be given one after the other. Niyyat (intention) should be performed before starting to give Ghusl by all participants (even those who help with the water), as follows:

      Niyyat: I am giving Ghusl to this corpse, with (type of water used to give Ghusl) Wajib Qurbatan Ilallah.

      Head and neck should then be washed, followed by the right hand side and the left hand side of the body. It is Ehtiyate Wajib to follow this procedure for washing the body.

    5. It is necessary to cover the private parts of the corpse at all times even if the performers are of the same sex as the dead person.

    6. It is Wajibe Kifai to give Ghusl to a miscarried child of four months or more. If it is an under four months old miscarriage, then there is no need to administer Ghusl. The child's body should however be wrapped in a piece of cloth and buried.

    7. It is not permitted for a man to give Ghusl to a woman and vice-versa. Exception to this rule is only made in the case of a man and wife, where one is allowed to give Ghusl to the other. It is Mustahab to avoid this if circumstances permit.

    8. Both men and women are allowed to give Ghusl to the body of a child of up to three years of age, regardless of its sex.

    9. The Ghusl of a Muslim child born out of wedlock is also necessary.

    10. One who has been suffering from mental illness from childhood and with the same condition has become Baligh, if he can be considered a Muslim, then it is necessary to give Ghusl to such a person when he dies. Ghusl, Kafan and other duties are not allowed for a non-Muslim or his child.

    11. If a male is not available to undertake the work of Ghusl for the corpse of a male, his female relatives e.g. mother, sister or aunt (i.e. father's or mother's sister) may give Ghusl from behind a cloth. Similarly, if the dead person is a female, male Mahram relatives from her family may give Ghusl if no female is available.

    12. If a person dies in the state of Haidh (menses) or Janabat, there is no need to give extra Ghusl for Haidh or Janabat. Once the above mentioned three Wajib Ghusls have been administered, no other Ghusl will be required.

    13. In cases where water is not available, or for some other reason it is difficult to give Ghusl (e.g. because of extensive injury to the dead body), then three Tayammum should be given as substitutes for the three Wajib Ghusls. It is Ehtiyate Wajib that one more Tayammum be given as a substitute for all the three Ghusls. If a person during one of the Tayammums makes Niyyat that he/she is giving Tayammum to the corpse in order to fulfil what is required by Shariat, then there will be no need for the 4th Tayammum.

    14. The person giving Tayammum to the corpse must administer it with his own hands. It is Ehtiyate Wajib that after this the hands of the corpse should be used in giving all Tayammums again for the second time if possible.

    15. After the Ghusls are over, the dead body is Pak. However, all participants must then perform Ghusle Masse-Mayyit themselves (the Ghusl for having touched a cold dead body.) Those people who touch the body after the three Ghusls, do not have to perform Ghusle Masse-Mayyit.

The Procedure Of Hunoot

  1. The following action is Wajib

    After Ghusl, Hunoot must be given to a dead person. The appropriate Niyyat must be made. It is better to give Hunoot before the corpse is shrouded although it can be done during or after the corpse is shrouded.

    Hunoot means to rub some camphor on those seven parts of the body which are placed on the ground during prostration (sajdah) in Salaat i.e. forehead, palms, knees and toes. The camphor must be fresh and powdered. If it has lost its scent, it will not be considered sufficient.
  1. The following actions are Ehtiyate Wajib.

    1. Camphor should be applied to the forehead first, but for the other parts no particular order is required.

    2. No other perfume should be applied to the dead body along with camphor or without it.
  1. The following actions are Mustahab.

    1. To rub some camphor on the nose and chest of the deceased person.
    2. To mix little Turbah (earth from the grave of Imam Husain (A) with camphor, but it must not be of such quantity that when mixed with camphor it can no longer be called camphor. Such mixture of Turbah must not be applied to any place that may cause disrespect.
  1. The following rules are relevant to Hunoot.

    1. If sufficient camphor is not available or it is just enough for Ghusl, then Hunoot is not necessary.
    2. Application of camphor is not allowed if a person dies in the state of Ehram for Haj or Umra. Except if the death has taken place after completion of Sa'ee (walking seven times between Saffa and Marwa).
    3. If a woman dies during her Iddah (waiting period after the death of her husband), it is still necessary to give her Hunoot although she was not allowed to use perfume during her Iddah.

The Procedure Of Kafan (Shrouding)

Kafan (shrouding) must be done after the Ghusl is over. The minimum (Wajib) Kafan consists of three pieces of cloth, while it is usual and Mustahab to use seven pieces in the case of males and eight in the case of females. It is Mustahab to use white cotton cloth. The cloth should not be cut with a metal instrument if possible.

The various pieces are described fully in the next section.

  1. The following pieces are Wajib parts of the Kafan

    1. Lungi: This is a loin cloth which must cover the body from the navel to the knees, although it is Mustahab that it should cover the body from the chest to the feet. The approximate size of Lungi is 60" x 54" (150 cms X 135 cms).

    2. Perahan: This is a shirt which must be large enough to cover the body from the shoulders to the upper half of the legs. It is Mustahab to also cover the upper portion of the feet. The approximate size of Perahan is 36" x 110" (90 cms x 275 cms).

    3. Chaadar: This is an overall sheet which must be wide enough to wrap around the body with one side overlapping the other, and long enough such that both ends (at the head and feet) can be tied up when the body is wrapped in it. Approximate size of Chaadar is 60" x 90" (150 cm x 225 cm).
  1. The following pieces are Mustahab parts of the Kafan
    1. For the Male:

      1. Rann Pech: This is a piece of cloth to cover the private parts and must be long enough to wrap it on the two thighs. The approximate size is 16" x 108" (40 cms x 270 cms).

      2. Amama: This is a piece of cloth that is wound on the head like a turban. The approximate size is 6" x 108" (15 cms x 270 cms).

      3. Kamarband: This piece of cloth is tied like a belt to hold the Lungi in place.

      4. Second Chaadar: This piece is the same size as the Wajib Chaadar, and is used to secure the other pieces inside.

    1. For the Female:

      1. Rann Pech: This piece is the same as that for a male.

      2. Seena Band: This piece of cloth is used to cover the breasts. The approximate size is 12" x 90" (30 cms x 225 cms).

      3. Makna: This piece covers the head just like in Salaat. The approximate size is 25" x 55" (63 cms x 140 cms).

      4. Kamarband: This piece is the same as that for a male.

      5. Second Chaadar: This piece is the same as for the male.

    1. Jareeda:

      This is a Mustahab action which has been highly recommended. Jareeda are fresh twigs (without leaves) cut from a tree.

      A lot of emphasis has been given by our Imams (A) to place Jareeda on both sides of the dead body. The reason given is that as long as the twigs remain green, the body will be spared from Fishaar (the squeezing in the grave.)

      Preference is given to the twigs of date palms. If that is not available then twigs from pomegranate (Daaram) tree may be used and if these are not available then from any other tree.

      The twigs should be of arms length and the name of the dead person together with his testimony in the Kalima and the Imams (A) should be inscribed on them.

      The twig on the right side should touch the armpit while the one on the left hand side should be kept above the armpit. The Chaadar is then wrapped around the body.
  1. The following rules are relevant to the Kafan

    1. The cloth used for Kafan must not be transparent such that the body can be seen.

    2. If the Kafan becomes Najis, it is Wajib to make it Paak, even if the body is already placed in the grave. The Kafan can be made Paak in one of the following ways:

      1. Washing the Najis part.
      2. Cutting away the Najis part.
      3. Changing the Kafan.

    3. It is Mustahab to possess Kafan during one's lifetime, alongwith camphor and the berry leaves as required for a dead person. According to Holy Prophet (S), one who keeps his or her Kafan ready will not be counted among those who have been unmindful of death.
    4. A man has to pay for his own Kafan. The Kafan of a deceased wife must be provided by her husband, even though she may have her own property. The husband has also to manage for the Kafan of the deceased wife who was divorced by Talaake-Raja'e (revokable divorce) and her Iddah (waiting period) had not expired before her death.

Salaate Mayyit

After Ghusl and Kafan, it is Wajib to pray Salaate Mayyit for a dead Muslim who is six years or older. For a child younger than six years it is Mustahab to pray the Salaat.

It is greatly rewardable (Thawaab) to join this prayer. According to one tradition, Jannat becomes due for a person who offers this prayer, provided he is not a hypocrite (Munafiq) or disowned (Aaq) by his parents.

In Salaate Mayyit, Taharat of the body or dress is not necessary, also Ghusl, Wudhu or Tayammum is not Wajib. Salaate Mayyit must be prayed facing Qiblah with the Niyyat of Jamaat. The body should be placed in such a way that the head of the body is on the right hand side of those who offer the prayer and they must be standing close to the corpse.

The method of praying Salaate Mayyit

The prayer of Mayyit has five Takbirs (Allahu Akber).

After the first Takbir, Kalimae Shahadatain is recited.

After the second Takbir, Salawat is recited.

After the third Takbir, prayers are offered for all the believers and Muslims.

After the fourth Takbir, prayers are offered especially for the deceased person.

The fifth Takbir marks the end of the prayer. The shortest method of offering this prayer is as follows:

  1. Niyyat: I pray Salaate Mayyit for this corpse Wajib Kurbatan Ilallah.




    (In case the deceased is a female say:,


  7. After the completion of the prayer recite:
The Takbirs must be said in a consecutive order without an interval may which distort the form of the prayer (Tarteeb). In congregation of Salaate Mayyit, everyone has to recite the whole prayer (unlike in other Jamaat Salaat). It is not correct just to say "ALLAHU AKBER", and remain silent between the Takbirs. Such a prayer is Batil (void).

The following actions are Mustahab.
  1. If possible, the prayer should be said with Wudhu, Ghusl or Tayammum as necessary.

  2. In the case of a male deceased, the person praying alone (Furada) or as an Imam, should stand in front to the middle part of the body, if the deceased is a female, the person praying should stand in front of her chest.

  3. The person praying should be bare-footed.

  4. When saying a Takbir, one should raise his hands.

  5. The prayer should be said in congregation.

  6. The person leading the prayer (Imam-e-Jamaat) should say all the Takbirs and Dua's loudly, and others should say them in a low tone.

  7. Before the prayer, "AS-SALAH" should be said aloud three times.

Burial (Last Farewell)

Before the face of the dead person is finally covered up by the Kafan and tied up, the nearest relatives are called to have a last glimpse of the face. At this time, it is essential to bear in mind that only MAHRAM (those people who were not allowed to marry that person by Islamic Sharia) should come forward to see the face.


It is Wajibe Kifai to bury the dead body of a Muslim. The various stages of the procedure of burial are described next.
  1. The carrying of the dead body (Janaza)

    It is Mustahab that four people place the four corners of the Janaza on their shoulders while carrying it towards the grave yard. It is also Mustahab to start bearing the Janaza from the side where th right hand shoulder of the corpse lies, and to continue in an anti-clockwise direction. The bearers should not move across the front of the Janaza or underneath it.
  1. The following actions are Wajib.

    The body must be buried in a way that no smell would spread and no beast can take it out.

    The body must be placed in the grave such that its right side touches the ground and the whole front portion of the body is facing Qiblah. In places where coffins have to be used, then similar rules apply.

    It is not allowed to bury a Muslim in a non-Muslim graveyard and vice-versa.
  1. The following actions are Mustahab.

    The depth of the grave should be equal to the height of a person of a medium size.

    Just before burial, the body should be placed on the ground some feet away from the grave. The Janaza should then be raised and placed on the ground again. The procedure is repeated three times, each time bringing it closer to the grave before finally resting it in the grave.

    For males, the head should first be entered into the grave from the end where his feet will eventually lie. Finally, it is laid down in the prescribed position.

    For females, the body should first be placed at the side of the grave and then the body should be carried sideways, the whole body entering the grave at once. Finally, it is laid down in the prescribed position. While laying the body into the grave, it should be shielded from the view of onlookers with a piece of cloth.

    When the body is placed in the grave, the ties of the shroud should be opened and the right cheek should be placed on the ground. The head should be placed on a pillow made from some earth.

    Talqeen should be recited. (see Appendix 1)

    With the exception of the relatives of the deceased, other present should pour the soil into the grave with the back of their hands and say:
    (We are from God and to Him we will return)
    After burial, the surface of the grave should be formed into a rectangular shape and it should be raised 4" (10 cms) from the ground with a sign on it to make it recognizable. It is Makruh to raise it more.

    Some water should be poured on the grave.

    The people present should thrust their fingers into the grave so that finger marks remain in it (Tanzeel), and recite Surae Qadr seven times and ask Allah to forgive the deceased and say:

    "Lord, make the earth spacious on both his sides and raise his soul to Yourself. Meet him with a merciful welcome. Fill up his grave with mercy to make him needless of the mercy of others besides Yourself".
    After the people leave the grave, one of the deceased's relatives (Waaris) or one who is authorized by the guardian of the deceased should read Talqeen again on the grave.

    People should console the relatives of the deceased, and not aggravate their grief by vain talking and joking. It is also recommended that for three days after the death, the people of the house of the deceased should be served food; it is Makrooh to eat in their residence or near them.

    It is Wajib for the wife of a dead person to observe Iddah (mourning). During this period she should not adorn herself or wear colourful clothes.

Visiting The Graveyard

Those who are alive should not forget their dead relatives, but should offer alms (Sadaqah), and perform good deeds on their behalf for the Thawaab of their souls (Rooh). Children whose parents disowned them (Aaq) may regain the pleasure of their parents in this way.

The souls of the dead are pleased when their graves are visited.

It is Mustahab for males to visit the graves to recite Fatiha on Mondays and Saturdays and at the time of 'Asr on Thursdays and Fridays.

While entering the graveyard it is Mustahab to recite the following Du'a:





The meaning of this prayer is given on the next page In the Name of Allah, The Most Kind, The Most Merciful.

Greetings on you O those who have faith in "Laa Ilaha Illallah" (i.e. There is no God but Allah) from those who have faith in "Laa Ilaha Illallah".

O you who have faith in "Laa Ilaha Illallah", how did you find the promise of "Laa Ilaha Illallah" from "Laa Ilaha Illallah" (i.e. from Allah)?

O You except Whom there is none worth worshipping, for the sake of "Laa Ilaha Illallah", forgive him who said "Laa Ilaha Illallah".

Include us also amongst those who said "Laa Ilaha Illallah, Muhammadur Rasoolullah, Aliyyun Waliyullah, Wasiyyu Rasoolullah."

Appendix 1


The following Talqeen is from the book "Zaatul Ma'aad" by Allama Majlisi (A.R.). The slight variations in case of a female body are in brackets.

Isma' Ifham, Isma' Ifham, Isma' Ifham (Isma'ee Ifhami, Isma'ee Ifhami, Isma'ee Ifhami) Yaa ___________ Ibni (Binti) __________.

Hal Anta (Anti) 'Alal Ahdillazee Faraktana (Faraktina) 'Alayhi Min Shahadati 'An Laa Ilaha Illallahu Wahdahu Laa Sharika Lah.

Wa 'Anna Muhammadan Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wa Aalihi 'Abduhu Wa Rasooluhu Sayyidun Nabiyyena Wa Khatamul Mursaleen.

Wa 'Anna 'Aliyyin Ameerul Mu'mineena Wa Sayyidul Wasiyyeena Wa Imamun Iftarazallahu Ta'atahu 'Alal 'Alameen.

Wa 'Annal Hasana, Wal Husaina, Wa 'Aliyyabnal Husain, Wa Muhammad Abna 'Aliyyin, Wa Ja'far Abna Muhammadin, Wa Moosa Abna Ja'farin, Wa 'Aliy Abna Moosa, Wa Muhammad Abna 'Aliyyin, Wa 'Aliy Abna Muhammadin, Wal Hasan Abna 'Aliyyin, Wal Qaaimal Muntazaral Mahdiyyu Salawwatullahi Alayhim, A-Immatul Mu'mineena Wa Hujajullahi 'Alal Khalqi Ajmaeen Wa A-Immatuka (A-Immatuki) A-Immatu Hudan Abraar.

Yaa ____________ Ibni (Binti) _____________, Iza Attakal (Attakil) Malakaanil Muqarrabaanir Rasoolaini Min Indillahi Tabaaraka Wa Ta'ala Wa Sa-alaka (Sa-Alaki) 'An Rabbika (Rabbiki) Wa 'An Nabiyyika (Nabiyyiki) Wa 'An Deenika (Deeniki) Wa 'An Kitaabika (Kitaabiki) Wa 'An Qiblatika (Qiblatiki) Wa 'An A-Immatika (A-Immatiki), Falaa Takhaf (Takhafi) Walaa Tahzan (Tahzani) Wa Qul (Quli) Fi Jawaabihima: Allahu Jalla Jalaalahu Rabbi, Wa Muhammadun Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wa Aalihi Nabiyyi, Wal Islaamu Deeni, Wal Qur'aanu Kitaabi, Wal Ka'abatu Qiblati, Wa Ammerul Mu'mineena Aliyyubnu Abi Taalibin Imaami, Wal Hasanubnu 'Aliyyinal Mujtaba Imaami, Wal Husainubnu 'Aliyyinish Shaheedu Bi Karbala Imaami, Wa Aliyyun Zainul 'Abideen Imaami, Wa Muhammadun Baqiru 'Ilmin Nabiyyena Imaami, Wa Ja'farus Saadiqu Imaami, Wa Moosal Kaazimu Imaami, Wa 'Aliyyunir Rizaa Imaami, Wa Muhammadunil Jawaadu Imaami, Wa 'Aliyyunil Haadiyu Imaami, Wal Hasanul Askariyyu Imaami, Wal Hujjatul Muntazaru Imaami.

Haa ulaai Salawaatullahi 'Alayhim Ajma'een A-Immati Wa Saadati Wa Qaadati Wa Shufa 'Aai.

Bihim Atawalla Wa Min A'daaihim Attabarrau Fid Dunya Wal Aakhira.

Thumma, I'lam (I'lami), Yaa ___________ Ibni (Binti) __________, 'Annallalaahu Tabaaraka Wa Ta'ala Ni'mar Rabbu, Wa 'Anna Muhammadan Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wa Aalihi Ni'mar Rasoolu, Wa 'Anna Ammeral Mu'mineena 'Aliyyibna Abi Talibin Wa Awlaadahul A-Immata Ahada 'Ashara Ni'mal A-Immatu, Wa 'Anna Ma Jaa-a Bihi Muhammadan Sallallahu 'Alayhi Wa Aalihi Haqqun. Wa 'Annal Mawta Haqqun, Wa Su-aala Munkarin Wa Nakeerin Fil Qabri Haqqun, Wal Ba-asa Haqqun, Wan Nushoora Haqqun, Was Siraata Haqqun, Wal Meezana Haqqun, Wa Tata-Irul Kutubi Haqqun, Wal Jannata Haqqun, Wan Naara Haqqun, Wa Annas Saa-ata Aatiyatun Laa Rayba Feeha Wa 'Annallaha Yab'asu Man Fil Quboor.

Afahimta (Afahimti) Yaa ___________ Ibni (Binti) __________, Sabbatakallahu (Sabbatakillahu) Bil Qawlis Saabiti Wa Hadaakallahu (Hadaakillahu) Ila Siraatin Mustaqeem.

'Arrafallahu Baynaka (Baynaki) Wa Bayna Awliyaaika (Awliyaaiki) Fi Mustaqarrim Mir Rahamatih.

Allahumma Jafil Ardha An Jambayhi (Jambayha), Wa As-id Bi Ruhihi (Ruhiha) Ilayka Wa Laqqihi (Laqqiha) Minka Burhanan.

Allahumma Afwaka Afwak.

Translation Of Talqeen.

Listen and understand, listen and understand, listen and understand, O ___________ son (daughter) of ___________.

Are you on the same covenant on which you were when you parted from us?

That covenant is the testimony of the fact that there there is no God but Allah, Who is only One and Who has no partner.

And the testimony of the fact that undoubtedly Muhammad, may the Peace of Allah be on him and his progeny, is the slave and prophet of Allah and is the lord of all the prophets and is the last of them.

And that 'Ali is the chief of the believers and the leader of all the successors and he is such an Imam whose obedience has been made obligatory on the whole world.

And that Hasan and Husain and 'Ali son of Husain, and Muhammad son of 'Ali, and Ja'far son of Muhammad, and Moosa son of Ja'far, and 'Ali son of Moosa, and Muhammad son of 'Ali, and 'Ali son of Muhammad, and Hasan son of 'Ali, and Muhammad, the awaited one, son of Hasan - may the Peace of Allah be on them all - are the Imams of all the believers and are the authorities on the whole world, and all these Imams are guides for the pious persons.

O ___________ son (daughter) of ___________, when the two favourite angels sent by Allah approach you and inquire of you about your God, your Prophet, your religion, your book, your Qiblah and your Imams, do not be afraid or grieved or worried, but say in reply:

"Allah, the Glorious and Dignified, is my Lord, Muhammad, peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny, is my Prophet, Islam is my reliqion, the Qur'an is my book, Ka'aba is my Qiblah, Ameerul Mu'mineen 'Ali ibne Abi Talib is my Imam, Hasane Mujtaba is my Imam, Husain, the martyr of Kerbala, is my Imam, 'Ali Zaynul 'Abideen is my Imam, Muhammad Baqir is my Imam, Ja'far Saadiq is my Imam, Moosae Kaazim is my Imam, 'Ali Riza is my Imam, Muhammad Jawaad is my Imam, 'Ali Haadi is my Imam, Hasan Askari is my Imam and Hujjatul Muntazar is my Imam. All these great persons, may Allah's peace be upon them, are my Imams, my leaders, my chiefs, and my intercessors and I keep friends with them and have hatred for their enemies in this world as well as in the world to come."

O ___________ son (daughter) of ___________, know that Allah, the Exalted, is undoubtedly the best of Providers, and Muhammad, may the peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny, is undoubtedly the best of the prophets and that Ammeerul Mu'mineen 'Ali ibne Abi Talib and the eleven Imams who are his descendants, are undoubtedly the best Imams and leaders.

Whatever message Muhammad, may the peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny, has brought is true. Undoubtedly Death is true, the questioning of Munkar and Nakeer in the grave after death is true, coming to life after death is true, the scale [Meezan] is true, the Path [Siraat] is true, accounting of deeds is true, and undoubtedly there will be a Day of Judgement.

Allah will undoubtedly bring to life those who are in the graves.

O ___________ son (daughter) of ___________, may Allah keep you firm on these beliefs and may He guide you on the right path and may Allah introduce you to friends in the vicinity of His mercy.

O Allah, make the ground spacious for him (her) on both the sides and raise his (her) soul towards You and direct Your Guidance to him (her). O Allah, pardon us, pardon us.

Appendix 2

Salaate Wahshat

The Holy Prophet (S) has said that:

"A dead person does not bear greater hardships in the grave at any time than the first night."

He has therefore advised that we should give Sadaqah in the name of the dead person to induce Allah's mercy. In addition we should also pray 2 Raka'ats Salaate Wahshat with the intention of pleasing Allah and seeking forgiveness for the deceased.

Wahshat means loneliness and anxiety. This prayer can be said any time during the first part of the night of the burial, but it is better to recite it at the beginning of the night after Isha Salaat.

The form of this prayer is as follows:

In the 1st raka'at, after Surae Al-Hamd, Ayatul Kursi (verses 255, 256 and 257 of Surae Baqarah) should be recited.

In the 2nd rakaat, after Surae Al-Hamd, Surae Qadr (Inna-Anzalnah) (sura No.97) should be recited 10 times.

After the prayer is finished, Salawaat should be said followed by Dua to Allah to send the reward of the prayer to the grave of the deceased.

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