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Rules Regarding Qaza Fasts
- When ghusl becomes Wajib and a person fails to do it
before Adhan for Fajr prayers after having woken up once only, then just Qaza is required. If however, a person wakes up for a second time during the night and still does not perform ghusl then not only is Qaza required but Kaffara has to be given as well.
- If a person does something that breaks the fast when he is not sure of the timing and later finds that the time for Fajr had set in, or if he breaks his fast thinking it is already time to do so and finds out later that it wasn't, Qaza has to be kept for that fast.
- If a person puts water in the mouth to feel cool or without any reason and the water is then swallowed by mistake, Qaza fast has to be kept.
- If a person breaks the fast due to unavoidable reasons then Qaza fast has to be kept.
- If a person who was insane becomes sane, he is not required to fast those which he missed when he was insane.
- When an unbeliever becomes a Muslim, he does not have to fast those that he missed out when he was an unbeliever. However, if a Muslim changes his Faith to accept another and then later becomes a Muslim again, he has to give Qaza for all those he missed out when he wasn't a Muslim.
- If a person breaks his fast on account of compulsion, e.g if he has to break his fast because there may be a danger to his life from other unbelievers around him, then he has to fast Qaza for the fasts missed.
- If a person leaves out a fast for any reason that is valid, e.g. becoming ill during the month of Ramadhan, then he has to fast Qaza for those fasts after that Ramadhan but before the next Ramadhan. If however, he does not manage to complete the Qaza fasts before the next year, then he has to give one MUDD (3/4 kg) of foodstuff, (i.e. wheat, barley, etc), to a poor person for each fast missed out. After that those Qaza fasts can be kept at any time throughout the person's life.
- If a person does not fast during Ramadhan due to illness or any other valid reason, and dies before the end of Ramadhan, it is not necessary to give Qaza fasts on their behalf.
- A person who is fasting a Qaza fast for the month of Ramadhan can break his fast before Zohr.
- If a person is fasting Qaza for someone who is dead, it is better not to break the fast after Zohr.
- After the death of a person, his eldest son should keep his Qaza fasts.
- If a father has not kept a Wajib fast other than that of the month of Ramadhan, e.g. a fast that became Wajib on account of a vow, the eldest son should keep Qaza for that fast. However, if the father was hired to fast Qaza for another person and he did not observe them, it is not Wajib for the eldest son to offer them.
- If the illness of a person continues for a few years, he should, after being cured, observe the Qaza fasts for the past year and give one MUDD of foodstuffs to a poor person, per fast for the previous years.